Professional flight simulation

 

Equipment Specification

 

Simulator Room  (back to top)


Overall Dimensions (external): length: approx. 6300mm
width: approx. 4200mm
height: approx. 2600mm


Characteristics: Fully enclosed flight deck, accessed through rear entrance.
Front Windscreens for out of the cockpit visuals.
Dual Rudder Pedals and Dual Control Columns.
Fixed mount pilot seats with:
backrest adjustment,
height adjustment,
two foldaway armrests.
Appropriately finished cockpit interior.
Lateral side consoles.
Integral Instructor's Station.

 

Instructor's Station  (back to top)

Integral to the Simulator, the instructor's Station is placed behind the pilots. It consists of a workstation incorporating a computer monitor, keyboard, mouse, intercom and a console from which to introduce specific aircraft system failures, generally of the following subsystems, although tailored to the aircraft type where appropriate:

Electrical DC bus failures:
-LH & RH Main Bus
-LH & RH Extension Bus
-LH & RH Cross-Over Bus
Generator failures:
-LH & RH Field Relays
-LH & RH Power Relays
Inverter failure
-Inverter 1 & 2
Hydraulic failures:
-LH & RH Pump
-Hydr. Fluid Loss
Gear failure:
-Gear extension/retraction mechanism
-Power Brake
Flap Motor failure
Pitch Trim Runaway
Avionics failures
-COM
-NAV
-ADF
-TRANSPONDER
Engine failure:
-LH & RH Engine failure
-LH & RH Engine fire
-LH & RH Thrust Reverser



Flight Deck Hardware  (back to top)


The FNPT Flight Deck Hardware is permanently mounted inside the cockpit enclosure and comprises the following subsystems laid out as per the aircraft type being simulated:
Dual Rudder Pedal Unit including Toe Brakes.
Dual Control Columns incorporating primary electric pitch trim, Autopilot disconnect switch and intercom PTT button
Instrument Panel and Consoles containing, where applicable:
Aircraft system switches functionally laid out as per aircraft or aircraft type simulated
1 monitor per pilot to display flight and other desired instrumentation
Landing gear control panel
Fully functional Avionics with integral frequency displays to include:
1 Comm Radio
2 Nav Radios
1 ADF
1 ATC/Transponder
2 DME's
Autopilot Preselect Display and Mode Annunciator Unit
Separate Engine Instrumentation, where applicable
Annunciator Panel for aircraft system status
Flap Position Indication
Stall/Overspeed Warning lights
Engine Fire Warning and Control
Thrust Reverser Indication and Control, where applicable
Master Warning Indication
Park Brake, Emergency Brake and Emergency Gear Extension
Fuel Management panel
Pressurisation Controls (Procedural), where applicable
Power Quadrant configured as per aircraft or aircraft type simulated
Flap Control
Spoiler Control, if applicable
Backup Trim system
Autopilot Control/Flight Management Control Unit to closely replicate the systems installed in the aircraft type, e.g.:
Alt Preselect and Hold Mode
V/S Preselect and Hold Mode
Heading Hold Mode
NAV1 Hold Mode
Approach Hold Mode
Wing Leveller Mode
Attitude Hold Mode
Flight Director, if applicable
Flight Director Pitch Sync, if applicable
Heading Bug and Course Control Knobs
Out the Cockpit View control (optional)
Basic simulation controls (pause, reset, etc)
Rudder and Aileron Trim.

 


FNPT Software  (back to top)


The FTD is designed to operate with two sets of software. They are:

Microsoft's off the shelf Flight Simulator FS2002 (MSFS) or newer software versions as the simulation software engine. This software is responsible for the complete flight model, generation of all instrument state data, display of selected instruments on the instrument panel monitors and visual imagery generation and out of the cockpit projection. Certain portions of MSFS are customised to ensure seamless interface with the flight deck. This allows the flexibility of configuring a simulator for any aircraft available for (MSFS)

Custom written interface software to simulate generic or type specific aircraft systems. This software operates in parallel to the interface hardware and firmware through which the flight deck communicates to the computer and ultimately issues commands to drive MSFS. Any command emanating from the cockpit or instructor's station through either action of the crew or the instructor is first processed by the interface hardware and software to apply any relevant or active systems simulation parameters/conditions. The results of this processing are then passed onto the computer to execute the respective commands and drive MSFS. At the same time the interface extracts the necessary MSFS flight parameters and variable data in real time to drive the cockpit feedback loop that updates cockpit hardware indications like e.g. Avionics, Autopilot Mode Display, Annunciators, Flap and Gear indications.


Software Characteristics  (back to top)


a) General:
Full six degree freedom of motion modelled.
Software support for all functional hardware interfaces as described in section 5.

b) Program Control/Setup:
Programmability of system reliability/failure characteristics:
i) 0 - 100% Aircraft reliability.
ii) System failures for:
Electrical DC bus failures
Generator Field and Power Relays failures
Inverter failure
Hydraulic Pump failures
Gear and brake failure
Flap Motor failure
Pitch Trim Runaway
Avionics failures
Engine failure and fires
Thrust Reverser failures
Day, dusk, night or dawn flying.
Repositioning of aircraft
Aircraft fuel loading.
Programmability of environment i.t.o.:
i) Turbulence
ii) Wind direction and speed.
iii) Clouds
iv) Ceiling.
v) Visibility.
vi) Local barometric pressure (QNH).
vii) Outside air temperature.
Saving and reloading of different flight situations.
Simulation Pause

c) Program and Simulator Configuration:
Setting of control response behaviour curves and sensitivities/damping for yaw, roll and pitch and all other analog based inputs.
Sound support for:
i) Engine(s)
ii) Gear
iii) Flaps
iv) Navigation sounds
v) Master Warning
Selection of aircraft type from library of aircraft available for MSFS The aircraft models are added individually to the aircraft software library attached to the main program.
Selection of different instrument configurations from a library of instruments. It is thus possible to configure an EFIS cockpit as well as a traditional analog instrumented flight deck on the same FNPT

d) Positional control and situational analysis:
Instant repositioning of aircraft
Selection of Nav-Database from worldwide library: Navigation databases supported are all those available for MSFS. They generally cover the whole world including countries in:
i) Southern Africa, including South Africa
ii) Northern Africa
iii) Europe
iv) North America
v) Central America
vi) South America
vii) Middle East
viii) Pacific
ix) Australia
General features of the Nav-databases:
i) All featured airports include:
ICAO designator, geographical position, elevation,
magnetic variation, runway: length, width, direction and
lighting.
ii) ILS equipped runways complete with all relevant nav-aids.
iii) Non precision letdown runways with their relevant letdown aids.
iv) All Nav-stations include: frequencies, ICAO designator, ident, geographical position, elevation, magnetic variation.


FNPT Configuration Variations  (back to top)


a) General:

The design philosophy of the IPT2000 provides the required flexibility for the building of all types of simulators, ranging from single engine/single pilot aircraft simulators through light twins, single and multicrew turboprops and jets as well as helicopters. This is achieved by introducing variations and/or simplifications to the basic design that is currently represented by the prototype Cessna Citation FNPT.


 

 

JAR-STD 3A Technical Requirements and Statement of Compliance  (back to top)

This section presents the minimum technical requirements for FNPT I, FNPT II and FNPT II MCC as per FAR-STD 3A.030 together with the statement of compliance for IPT2000 systems which are designed to the technical requirements laid down by STD 3A.030 FNPT II Type MCC.

For FNPT I
General regulatory description of Device:
A training device without motion system that in its flight deck/cockpit layout generically replicates a class of aircraft (e.g. all single engine land aircraft up to 2000kg)

Technical Requirements and compliance:

1. Technical Requirement: A cockpit/flight deck sufficiently enclosed to exclude distraction, which will replicate that of the aeroplane or class of aeroplane simulated and in which the switches and all the controls will operate as, and represent those in, that aeroplane or class of.
Statement of Compliance: A fully enclosed flight deck for 2 crew members measuring 1600mm wide x 1834mm long x 1650mm high at the entrance is provided. The flight deck is laid out and functionally equipped as per the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated. Additionally, it is provided with a suitable front windscreen for viewing of the out of the cockpit scenery and dummy side windows to exclude distraction. Access to the flight deck is gained from the rear centre, behind the 2 crew stations, through the instructor's station. For details please refer to drawing number C4/0003/A.

2. Technical Requirement: Instruments, equipment, panels, systems, primary and secondary flight controls sufficient for the training events to be accomplished [shall]be located in a spatially correct flight deck area.
Statement of Compliance: The flight deck layout and instrument panel is designed to
replicate in spatially correct form and function, as required for the intended training events outlined in the operator's FNPT Training Manual, the instruments, equipment, panels, systems, primary and secondary flight controls of the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated.

3. Technical Requirement: Lighting environment for panels and instruments sufficient for the operation being conducted.
Statement of Compliance: The flight deck is equipped with 2 overhead directionally adjustable map reading lamps in addition to instrument panel mounted and dimmable post lighting. The instructors station is equipped with overhead spotlamps to provide suitable lighting at the instructor's console without distracting the flight crew.

4. Technical Requirement: In addition to the flight crew members' stations, suitable viewing arrangements for the instructor [shall be provided. These shall] provide an adequate view of the crew members panels and station.
Statement of Compliance: The instructor's station is situated behind and to the side of the flightdeck with a mobile chair that allows the instructor to also position himself behind and between the flight crew for observation and/or instruction purposes with unobstructed view of the events unfolding in the flight deck. For details please refer to drawing number C4/0003/A.

5. Technical Requirement: Effects of aerodynamic changes for various combinations of drag and thrust normally encountered in flight , including the effect of change in aeroplane attitude, sideslip, altitude, temperature, gross mass, centre of gravity location and configuration. Full 6 degree of freedom simulation model is employed, recreating aerodynamic effects attributable to combinations of inflight drag and thrust, to include effects due to changes in aircraft attitude, altitude, environmental temperature, wind, turbulence, weight, loading and aircraft configuration.
Statement of Compliance: 6 Degree of freedom software simulation model is employed, recreating aerodynamic effects attributable to combinations of inflight drag and thrust, to include effects due to changes in aircraft attitude, altitude, environmental temperature, wind, turbulence, weight, loading and aircraft configuration.

6. Technical Requirement: Full complement and functionality of navigation equipment with operational tolerances equivalent to reality, including the simulation of air-to-ground communication procedures.
Statement of Compliance: The flight deck is equipped with a Communications Radio coupled to a 3 way intercom system linking the flight crew to each other and via the Push To Talk (PTT) buttons on the respective control wheels to the instructor. Further navigation equipment comprises 2 Navigation Radios with OBI and/or HSI indicators, a Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) receiver, an Automatic Direction Finding (ADF) Radio with RMI indicator and a Mode C Transponder.

7. Technical Requirement: Control forces and control travel shall broadly correspond to that of the replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane.
Statement of Compliance: Control travel corresponds to that of the aircraft being simulated in all three axes. Control forces correspond to the average control force feel of the aircraft being simulated and are generated through a mechanical system of springs and dampers where required.

8. Technical Requirement: Complete navigational data for at least 5 different European airports with corresponding precision and non-precision approach procedures including current updating within a period of 3 months. All navigational aids should be useable, if within range, without restriction and without instructor intervention
Statement of Compliance: Navigation database for South Africa and generally the world with all navaids required for navigation, precision and non-precision letdowns is available. All navigation aids exhibit the same transmission and reception characteristics (geographical location, frequency, ICAO designator, morse code identification) as the real facilities and are useable without the intervention of the instructor being required. A regular update of the database is not provided at this time, due to relatively few changes taking place to the navigation aid equipment in the Southern African region.

9. Technical Requirement: Engine sounds shall be available
Statement of Compliance: Realistic stereo engine, cockpit and navigation sounds are provided.

10. Technical Requirement: The following shall be available
- variable effects of wind and turbulence
- hard copy of map and approach plot
- provision for position freeze and flight freeze
- Instructor controls necessary to perform the training task
Statement of Compliance:
- Meteorological simulation in terms of variable cloud, wind, turbulence, visibility, temperature and atmospheric pressure is provided
- Colour printable output of approach flight path, including navigation aids from the instructor's station printer is provided
- Both the the flight deck and the instructor's station are equipped with a pause/freeze and unpause/unfreeze button.
- The instructor's station is equipped with a console containing the required controls and switches to perform the training task, e.g. the introduction of aircraft system failures. Additionally it is equipped with a computer, keyboard, mouse, and monitor to manage the training session.

11. Technical Requirement: A Qualification Test Guide which shall be submitted by the Operator in a form and manner that is acceptable to the competent Authority and which conforms to AMC STD 3A.030 (para 1.6).
Statement of Compliance: A suitable Qualification Test Guide shall be provided under separate cover.

12. Technical Requirement: Stall recognition device corresponding to that of the replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane
Statement of Compliance: A stall warning system, representative of that found in the aircraft or class of aircraft being simulated is provided. Aural and/or visual stall and overspeed warning can be configured.


FNPT II
General regulatory description of Device:
A training device without motion system that in its flight deck/cockpit layout replicates the cockpit of a multi-engined class or type of aircraft with the aircraft systems realistically represented. It includes a visual system providing an out of the cockpit view.

Technical Requirements Compliance:
As for the FNPT I with the following additional compliance:

1. Technical Requirement: The flight deck, including the instructor's station, shall be enclosed.
Statement of Compliance: A fully enclosed flight deck for 2 crew members measuring 1600mm wide x 1834mm long x 1560mm high at the entrance is provided. The flight deck is laid out and functionally equipped as per the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated. Additionally, it is provided with a suitable front windscreen for viewing of the out of the cockpit scenery and dummy side windows to exclude distraction. Access to the flight deck is gained from the rear centre, behind the 2 crew stations, through the instructor's station. For details please refer to drawing number C4/0003/A

2. Technical Requirement: Circuit breakers shall function accurately when involved in procedures or malfunctions requiring or involving flight crew response.
Statement of Compliance: Circuit breaker panels accurately replicating the circuit breaker panels found in the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated are provided on the flight deck. The circuit breakers are integrated into the functionality of the aircraft systems being simulated in as far as they can be used by the crew to isolate an aircraft system if procedures or malfunctions requiring or involving flight crew response require such action.

3. Technical Requirement: Crew members seats shall be provided with sufficient adjustment to allow the occupant to achieve the design eye reference position appropriate to the aeroplane or class of aeroplane and for the visual system to be installed to align with that eye position.
Statement of Compliance: Fully adjustable crew seats, i.t.o for and aft, up and down tilt and seatback with armrests, to allow the setting of the eye reference position of the crew members so that the full realistic effect of the visual system is utilised.

4. Technical Requirement: A generic ground handling model shall be provided to enable representative flare and touch down effects to be produced by the sound and visual systems.
Statement of Compliance: The 6 degree of freedom software simulation model caters for handling simulation on the ground and in ground proximity to replicate the effects during the landing flare and touchdown through the visual and sound system.


5. Technical Requirement: Systems [shall] be operative to the extent that it shall be possible to perform all normal, abnormal and emergency operations as may be appropriate to the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated and as required for the training. Once activated, proper systems operation must result from system management by the crew member and not require any further input from the instructor's controls.
Statement of Compliance: Simulation of normal, abnormal and emergency situations, as required by the aircraft type or class and the intended training curriculum are provided. Functioning of the respective system is achieved through system control on the part of the flight crew. No inputs from the instructor's station, other than those to introduce abnormalities or emergencies, are required to this end. For further system related detail information on a specific FNPT, please refer to the relevant FNPT Operating Handbook.

6. Technical Requirement: The instructor's station shall include the following controls:
(a) representative crosswinds
(b) a facility to enable the dynamic plotting of the flight path on approaches, commencing at the final approach fix, including the vertical profile.
Statement of Compliance:
(a) Through the meteorological simulation model, representative winds in any direction can be introduced to the training session from the instructor's station.
(b) The instructor's station monitor screen can be configured to display the colour dynamic plotting of the flight path including the vertical profile, also on approaches commencing at the final approach fix. These plot can then be output to hardcopy format through the colour printer provided.

7. Technical Requirement: Control forces and control travels which respond in the same manner under the same flight conditions as in the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated.
Statement of Compliance: Control travel corresponds to that of the aircraft being simulated in all three axes. Control forces correspond to the average control force feel of the aircraft being simulated and are generated through a mechanical system of springs and dampers where required. Control response is fine-tuned in software to respond in the same manner as the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated.

8. Technical Requirement: Aerodynamic modelling shall reflect:
(a) effects of airframe icing
(b) the rolling moment due to yawing
Statement of Compliance:
(a) Through the meteorological simulation model, icing conditions with their resoective effects can be introduced to the training session from the instructor's station.
(b) The 6 degree of freedom software simulation model caters for the rolling moment due to yawing.


9. Technical Requirement: Significant cockpit/flight deck sounds, responding to pilot actions, corresponding to the aeroplane or class of aeroplane being simulated
Statement of Compliance: Realistic stereo engine, cockpit and navigation sounds as well as appropriate flight deck sounds are provided through a suitable speaker system installed on the flight deck.

10. Technical Requirement: A visual system (night/dusk or day) capable of providing a field-of-view of a minimum of 45 degrees horizontally and 30 degrees vertically, unless restricted by the type of aeroplane, simultaneously for each pilot, including adjustable cloud base and visibility. The visual system need not be collimated but shall be capable of meeting the standards laid down in Part 3 and 4 (Validation, Functions and Subjective Tests - see AMC STD 3A.030). The responses of the visual system and the flight deck instruments to control inputs shall be closely coupled to provide the integration of the necessary cues.
Statement of Compliance: Projected visual system with the following characteristics is provided:
Day, dusk and night visuals
Simultaneous horizontal field-of-view in excess of 45 and 30 vertical field of view to each crew member - please refer drawing number C4/0003/A.
Through the meteorological simulation model adjustable cloud base and visibility can be controlled from the instructor's station.
The visual model presented by the projection system in front of the flightdeck, and viewed by the crew through the font windscreen, is driven by the same computing power and simulation model as the flight deck instrument indications. This means that the closest possible level of coupling between the visual system and flight deck instruments and indications is assured to be able to provide the required integration of the necessary cues.

FNPT II MCC:
Technical Requirements Compliance:
For use in Multi-Crew Co-operation (MCC) training - as for the FNPT II with the following additions or amendments:

1. Technical Requirement: Turbo-jet or turbo-prop engines.
Statement of Compliance: According to the replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane piston, turbo-prop or turbo-jet engines can be simulated. For details of a specific FNPT, please refer to the aircraft type as per the FNPT Operating Handbook.

2. Technical Requirement: Performance reserves, in case of an engine failure, to be in accordance with JAR-25. These may be simulated by a reduction in the aeroplane gross mass.
Statement of Compliance: Flight performance model fine-tuned in software to provide power reserves representative of the replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane in case of an engine failure.

3. Technical Requirement: Retractable landing gear
Statement of Compliance: Retractable undercarriage with emergency extension system provided.

4. Technical Requirement: pressurization system
Statement of Compliance: Procedural pressurisation provided if replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane is equipped therewith.

5. Technical Requirement: De-icing systems
Statement of Compliance: Where the replicated aircraft or class of aircraft is suitably equipped, de-icing system simulation is provided.

6. Technical Requirement: Fire detection / suppression system
Statement of Compliance: Where the replicated aircraft or class of aircraft is suitably equipped, fire detection / suppression simulation is provided.

7. Technical Requirement: Dual Controls
Statement of Compliance: Dual Controls for pitch, roll and yaw with toe brakes are provided.

8. Technical Requirement: Autopilot with automatic approach mode
Statement of Compliance: Autopilot according to the replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane is provided. Generally the following modes are incorporated:
(a) Alt Preselect and Hold Mode
(b) V/S Preselect and Hold Mode
(c) Heading Hold Mode
(d) NAV1 Hold Mode
(e) Approach Hold Mode
(f) Wing Leveller Mode
(g) Attitude Hold Mode
(h) Flight Director, if applicable
(i) Flight Director Pitch Sync, if applicable
(j) Go Around Mode

9. Technical Requirement: 2 VHF Transceivers including oxygen masks intercom system.
Statement of Compliance: 1 VHF Transceiver interfaced to the intercom system is installed. Where the replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane is equipped with a supplemental oxygen supply system, this is taken into consideration

10. Technical Requirement: 2 VHF NAV receivers (VOR, ILS, DME)
Statement of Compliance: 2 VHF NAV receivers with station ID and radial facility coupled to VOR, ILS and DME indications are provided.

11. Technical Requirement: 1 ADF receiver.
Statement of Compliance: 1 ADF receiver with station ID facility coupled to RMI indication is provided.

12. Technical Requirement: 1 Marker receiver.
Statement of Compliance: 1 Marker receiver with OMI indication is provided.

13. Technical Requirement: 1 Transponder.
Statement of Compliance: 1 Mode-C Transponder with flight level indication is provided.

14. Technical Requirement: The following instrument indications shall be located in the same positions on the instrument panels of both pilots:
(a) Airspeed
(b) Flight Attitude with Flight Director
(c) Altimeter
(d) Flight Director with ILS (HIS)
(e) Vertical Speed
(f) ADF
(g) VOR
(h) Marker Indication (as appropriate)
(i) Stopwatch (as appropriate)


Statement of Compliance: Instrument Panel layout is designed according to replicated aeroplane or class of aeroplane and is equipped with the following instrument indications located in the same positions:
(a) Airspeed
(b) Flight Attitude with Flight Director
(c) Altimeter
(d) Flight Director with ILS (HIS)
(e) Vertical Speed
(f) ADF
(g) VOR
(h) Marker Indication (as appropriate)
(i) Stopwatch (as appropriate)

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